Of particular interest is the fact that in his prose libretto Verdi created a musical masterplan for the entire opera: throughout the new text, the composer imposed his musical requirements by prescribing the layout of the recitative and lyrical sections when such treatment was not easily discernable in the prose dialogue. Chapter VII explains the lack of order in the manuscript containing Ghislanzoni's first draft and revisions of the versified Aida libretto.
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In the final chapter, the Ghislanzoni manuscript is studied in the light of Verdi's extensive role in the versification process. Four pertinent facts are made clear: Verdi provided Ghislanzoni with the complete prose libretto, which served as the basis of the versification; Verdi continued to create new prose models for scenes he perceived to be perplexed by serious faults once he had studied Ghislanzoni's poetry or had attempted to set it to music; the composer insisted that the poet retain all items of dialogue and stage directions given in Verdi's model libretto; by a continuous interchange of letters with Ghislanzoni, Verdi exposed a whole series of interrelated problems in Ghislanzoni's drafts, and proposed possible solutions for each.
Clearly, Verdi was principal librettist of this opera. The seven appendices contain texts from the autograph manuscripts given in microfilm 56 in the Archive, American Institute for Verdi Studies, New York, translations of Italian-language librettos contained therein, and an overview of Italian prosody. Vancouver : University of British Columbia Library.
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satanic horror – HORRORPEDIA
Dante, representing Man, astray in the Wood of Sin, at the age of thirty-five. Dante having been born in , the date of the Vision recorded in the Poem is Later than the time of line 13, early in the morning of Good Friday, , at the beginning of Spring, when the sun was in the constellation of Aries, where it was believed to have been on the day of Creation. The Wolf, evidently the most dangerous of the three Beasts to Dante, represents the class of sins spiritually the most dangerous to Man.
The prophecy of the Veltro, or Hound, a vaguely described future deliverer of Italy, Can Grande the great Dog della Scala, of Verona, which lies between two Feltros, being possibly intended. That the source of the Wolf is Envy, the offspring of Pride, falls in with the above interpretation of the worst of the three animals, Greed. Invocation of the Muses, who represent the Arts and Sciences, upon a knowledge of which a poet must draw, as well as upon his own Genius and Memory.
Aeneas, who descended into Hades to get the help, which led to his conquest of Italy, and eventually to the glories of Imperial and Papal Rome. Fearlessness and Freedom, here as elsewhere, the great spiritual qualities. Virgil Reason accepted by Dante as his Leader, Lord and Teacher, titles with which he addresses, or refers to, him appositely in each case.
Herewith the two poets enter upon the rough road which leads them underground to the outer Gate of Hell. Inscription on the Gate, describing Hell as being a spiritual state, in the letter of the allegory, a place eternally created by the Power, Wisdom, and even the Love of God, wherein Pain is the eternal concomitant of Disobedience of a Will inspired by perfect Justice.
Fearlessness the initial quality requisite of whoever would know Reality. The stars, here as elsewhere, the symbols of the Hope, abandoned by whoever enters Hell. Cowards, Neutrals, and the Lukewarm in moral and spiritual concerns, who, held in contempt by the universe, are rejected by Heaven and Hell alike. The restless Flag of Fashion followed by those whose deeds, thoughts, feelings, and beliefs are not self-determined. Most commentators take him to be Celestine V, who was induced to abdicate the Papacy through humility by the fraudulent intrigues of his successor, Boniface VIII.
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Never spiritually alive, they act only under external compulsion, while their blood and tears serve only to feed lower forms of life. The river Acheron, crossed by all who, in willing sin, will its equivalent and inseparable punishment. Charon, the Ferryman of Acheron, who refuses to receive Dante, because he is not, as are the others, spiritually dead. The password which prevails in the realm of Incontinence, where Reason, though neglected, is respected. Under the symbolism of earthquake, wind, and lightning Dante describes his mysterious birth by a flash of intuition, as it were, into a first appreciation of the truth which pervades the whole of his Inferno, that any state of Sin is one with its accompanying, or equivalent Pain.
Specially deserving of notice are the occasions when Virgil and Dante show Edition: current; Page: [ [xxvii] ] sympathy, or refuse it, for sinners in the lower world.
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This outermost circle portrays the spiritual state of the innocent and worthy, but pagan-minded, who, not having attained the Christian conception of life, cannot, while in that state, share in its happiness, and who therefore, though desiring, have no hope. The light surrounding these illustrious Pagans is only a hemisphere, because their loyalty to Reason was unquickened by spiritual faith.
Dante received among them as an equal, a claim on his part more than confirmed by the verdict of posterity. The military and political Heroes of the Trojan-Roman civilization, with the chivalric Saladin as the only representative of Mohamedanism.
A commentary on Aristotle, followed by the great medieval theologian, Thomas Aquinas. Dante here enters the real Hell of Sin and Pain, whose darkness is nowhere mitigated even by the half light of Reason. As, in descending, the circles grow narrower, the sins they reveal and the pain the latter involve are conceived as growing in intensity. His tail is with grim humor conceived as long enough to girdle him eight times.
A suggestion of the danger of contamination in an unguarded examination of Sin. Carnal sinners in general; their punishment being merely a picture of their sin, they are swept around in the dark by the aimless winds of sexual passion uncontrolled by Reason. Blaming God, or others, and not themselves, characteristic of those held in Hell.
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Semiramis leads those who sinned through brutal lasciviousness, or incest. In marked contrast with Semiramis, Dido of Carthage, who, faithless to her plighted loyalty to her dead husband, gave herself to Aeneas, leads those who weakly yielded to a genuine, though illegal, love for one person.
The pitiful story of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta, which has made its fifth canto one of the most popular of the Inferno, is treated by Dante with his utmost poetic charm and sympathy, because though sinful, theirs was the sin of a genuine love. Noteworthy is the contrast between the love of the man and that of the woman.
When found together, Francesca and Paolo were killed, without a chance of repentance, by her husband, Gianciotto Malatesta, lord of Rimini. The Italian dottore is best taken here, as above, as meaning not teacher, but leader. The cold and dirty rain in which the Gluttons are submerged, and the three-mouthed monster, Cerberus, who torments them, represent their disgusting abuse of the natural and necessary appetite for Food.
Sympathy, because gluttony and the like are sins to which the social and good-natured are peculiarly tempted. The Bianchi and Neri are the factions referred to. Three suns are three years. Of the two just men in Florence, it is quite like Dante to have had himself in mind as one. Illustrious citizens of Florence, whom Dante respected for their civic virtues, but whom he will see lower down in Hell, because of their personal sins. Almost all sinners wish to be remembered on earth, except traitors, who have wholly broken the social bond. Christ at the Final Judgment. Men are justly judged by a comparison of their lives with that of the moral and spiritual Record-holder of the race.
What it was probably intended to be, incomprehensible jargon, or a clucked out appeal to Satan. It is because of the perfection of Divine Justice that sin is self-punished. Misers and Prodigals represented as wasting their lives in selfishly amassing and holding, or in squandering Wealth; Abuse and Nonuse, here, as elsewhere in the realm of Incontinence, being opposed to rational Use.
Charybdis in the Strait of Messina. Dante uses unrecognizability to describe sins which result in, or are due to, lack of character. Mediaeval mythology conceived of Angels and Intelligences in somewhat the same way that Laws are conceived of in the intellectual mythology of modern Science. Fortune is thought of as the personification of the law controlling the waxing and waning of the prosperity of individuals, families, nations, and races.
Gods, Angels, and Laws are all mythological attempts to express observed correlations in Nature. As when she is blamed as Edition: current; Page: [ [xxxii] ] Luck, or worse. This means, in the language of the stars, whose positions Virgil sees in his mind, that it is now past midnight, over six hours since the evening of Good Friday, when the poets entered Hell.
This is the overflow of Acheron, since Dante conceives of all the rivers of his Hell as interconnected. Styx, the marshy river, or fen, which with its banks forms the Fifth Circle. Those who have not character enough to have the courage to voice their convictions, and fight for them like men. One of the distant towers on the walls surrounding the City of Dis, or Nether Hell. Phlegyas, the wrathful local boatman of Styx, blinded by anger, does not see as clearly as Charon did.
Filippo, nicknamed Argenti Silver , an arrogant and irascible Florentine of the Adimari family. Mosques, possibly to suggest the Heresy just inside, Mohammedanism being thought to be as heretical as it was schismatic.