In the vicinity is found sugar of a high class, for men plant it here, and people come from all lands to buy it. And should one care to go forth by boat, one can see the castles, market-places, streets, and palaces in the bed of the sea , emp. From this twelfth-century A.
It very likely is the case that the specific site of ancient Tyre has been buried by sand and water over the course of the last 2, years and is lost to modern knowledge.
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That the prophet was speaking about the mainland city in reference to many aspects of his prophecy has much to commend it. It was to that mainland city that King Nebuchadnezzar directed most of his attention and destructive measures described in Ezekiel Furthermore, it was the mainland city that Alexander destroyed completely and cast into the sea to build his causeway to the island city. In addition, Katzenstein noted that the scholar H. If the history of Tyre is traced more completely, it becomes evident that even the island city of Tyre suffered complete destruction.
Fleming noted that in approximately A. In addition, the city was besieged in A. And ultimately, in A. In , another earthquake pounded the remains of the city so that the streets were filled with debris from fallen houses to such a degree that they were impassable p.
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Furthermore, it is evident that the multiple periods of destruction and rebuilding of the city have long since buried the Phoenician city that came under the condemnation of Ezekiel. Yet, the book of Ezekiel has much that lends itself to the idea that it was composed by Ezekiel during the time it claims to have been written.
When did Ezekiel write his material? Kenny Barfield noted that, besides a belief that supernatural revelation is impossible,. Moreover, the book Ezek. Simon Greenleaf, the lawyer who is renowned for having played a major role in the founding of Harvard Law School and for having written the Treatise on the Law of Evidence , scrutinized several biblical documents in light of the procedures practiced in a court of law.
Specifically in regard to Ezekiel, that is exactly the case. If the prophet wrote it in the sixth century B. In regard to the objections that have been put forth, as Greenleaf noted, the burden of proof concerning the authenticity of Ezekiel lies with those who consider it inauthentic. Yet, far from proving such, they have put forth tenuous suggestions based on alleged internal inconsistencies. First, these critics have proposed that the work could not have been by one man since some sections are filled with descriptions of doom and destruction, while others resound with hope and deliverance.
ALEXANDER AND TYRE
This alleged inconsistency holds little weight, as Miller noted:. Of course, this viewpoint is based on purely subjective considerations. No inherent reason exists that forbids a single writer from presenting both emphases. One must be in possession of a prejudicial perspective before approaching Scripture to come to such a conclusion , p. The second objection to the integrity of Ezekiel has little more to commend it than the first.
This objection can be dealt with quickly in a twofold manner. First, it would be possible, and very likely, that news would travel from the remnant of Israelites still free in Palestine to the captives in Babylon.
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Second, and more likely, if Ezekiel was guided by divine inspiration, he could have been given the ability to know events in Palestine that he did not see see Miller, , pp. Albright, the eminent and respected archaeologist, noted that one of C. Until about , this argument seemed to possess some merit. But in that year, Babylonian tablets were brought to light that contained a cuneiform inscription giving the Babylonian description of Jehoiachin as king of Judah, even though he was in captivity p.
So accurate were the prophecies made by Ezekiel that skeptics were forced to suggest a later date for his writings. Albright, W. Archer, Gleason L. Davis, George T.
Fleming, Wallace B. Free, Joseph P. Herodotus, reprint , The Histories , trans. Keil, C. Siculus, Diodorus , Library of History , trans. This movie requires Flash Player 8. Download Flash Player 8. Bible Class Curriculum. Product Catalog. Bible Reader. Home Study Courses. Other Languages. PDF Books. AP on Facebook. AP Summer Camp.
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Deity of Christ. Doctrinal Matters. Existence of God. Inspiration of the Bible. Islam and Other World Religions. Bust of Alexander the Great, who conquered Tyre in B. This aerial view of Tyre vividly shows the landbridge that Alexander created. Much silt and sand has accumulated over the years to widen the area of the original causeway. Bulletin Articles. Difficult Passages. Factual Accuracy. In the News. Second, what kind of authority did NT prophecy involve? In the past fifty years, various attempts have been made to define NT prophecy. Of these, five suggestions stand out for their influence or their originality.
While much of the work behind these studies is stimulating and judicious, I hope to demonstrate that each of these proposals is ultimately found wanting. Earle E. Ellis has contributed to the discussion of prophecy by hypothesizing that the interpretation of Scripture is a key feature of prophetic activity. He notes that the evidence from Qumran should caution scholars from distinguishing too sharply between prophetic functions and teaching functions, thus undermining the argument that biblical interpretation belongs to the latter.
Ellis also understands James to be prophesying at the Jerusalem council, and he thus concludes that the decree of Acts 15 serves as evidence that prophecy involves biblical interpretation. As he himself is aware, many leaders of the early church wore multiple hats. To prove that prophecy can be synonymous with biblical interpretation, he would have to demonstrate that Paul, Barnabas, Peter, James, and others exposited the Scripture as an expression of their prophetic office ; needless to say, Ellis does not prove this point. David Hill has argued that NT prophecy should fundamentally be understood as pastoral preaching.
So for instance, Hill cites Acts —41 as part of his argument for characterizing prophecy as exhortatory preaching. A third approach to the problem is espoused by Thomas W. To begin with, Gillespie defines prophecy in a way that would imply that Paul was at odds with other OT and NT writers.
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After all, both the OT and the NT recount prophetic activities which would be difficult to describe as gospel proclamation. A criterion may limit a concept without necessarily defining that concept. So for instance, the author of the Didache distinguished between true and false prophets by claiming that the former never received payment. However, it would be a mistake to conclude on the basis of this criterion that prophetic ministry is to be equated with unpaid ministry. The prophet then interprets these inner promptings, chiefly by expressing them in speech.
He argues that 1 Corinthians implies that the prophet had to interpret the revelations he received, and that he in fact did so with great difficulty. The view that prophecy refers to interpreted divine revelation is intriguing but speculative. Furthermore, the few glimpses we have into the inner-workings of prophecy like Acts and Rev 2—3 run counter to their suggestion that prophecy involves the fallible human interpretation of divine revelation.
His grammatical arguments fail because anarthrous nouns are regularly definite, especially when they occur in prepositional phrases or when they are modified by a genitive noun. As I have shown, several attempts have recently been made to define NT prophecy. However, my survey of these proposals suggests that a truly satisfying definition has yet to be formulated. In order to maintain a proper focus on prophetic activity, I have considered two kinds of NT texts: those which refer to prophecy explicitly and those which do so implicitly.
The first condition provides an objective, lexical basis for narrowing the scope of potentially relevant passages. However, since prophets presumably engaged in prophetic as well as non-prophetic activity, the first condition is not sufficient by itself to ensure that a passage involves prophecy. Therefore, the second condition must be added.